Tuesday, 24 September 2013

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New Friends Quotes Biography

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Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) was born near Usk, Monmouthshire (now part of Gwent), Wales as the eighth child of the family. His father had actually trained as a lawyer and had inherited enough wealth to live independently as a young man. Marriage and the ensuing responsibilities had changed his circumstances and diverse occupations were subsequently attempted. The family left Usk for Hertford, a county-town, and Mrs. Wallace's home town, not too distant from London, when Alfred Russel Wallace was only five. His father gained the position of being town librarian in Hertford. Unfortunately Mr. Wallace lost much of his remaining property through ill advised dealings in 1835 resulting in real hardship for the family - Alfred Russel Wallace, then barely into his teenage years, had to cut short his education late in 1836 and was sent to live in London with a 19-year-old older brother, John, who was apprenticed in the building industry. At some time during the next few months Wallace was introduced to the Utopian Socialism of Robert Owen of which he became a keen disciple. The following year Wallace moved on to join another brother, William, who had a surveying business in Bedfordshire. Alfred Russel Wallace subsequently became an apprentice in his brother's company. For several years subsequently Wallace was mainly involved in surveying and allied professions but also became greatly interested in Natural History - his day job offering many opportunities to develop his new interest as the first of our quotes from Alfred Russel Wallace's autobiography shows:-
It was here, too, that during my solitary rambles I first began to feel the influence of nature and to wish to know more of the various flowers, shrubs and trees I daily met with, but of which for the most part I did not even know the English names. At the same time I hardly realised that there was such a science as a systematic botany, that every flower and every meanest and most insignificant weed had been accurately described and classified, and that there was any kind of system or order in the endless variety of plants and animals which I knew existed. This wish to know the names of wild plants, to be able even to speak of them, and to learn anything that was known about them, had arisen from a chance remark I had overheard about a year before. A lady, who was a governess in a Quaker family we knew at Hertford, was talking to some friends in the street when I and my father met them, and stayed for a few minutes to greet them. I then heard the lady say, "We found quite a rarity the other day - the Monotropa - it had not been found here before." This I pondered over, and wondered what the Monotropa wasThis was an era when people often tried through improve themselves through education and to socialise in educative contexts. Such impulses might allow the big cities to support explicit societies promoting learned interests and even provincial towns, such as Hertford, had its so-called Mechanic's Institute - of which Wallace became a keen member.  It happened, however, that William Wallace's business fell on hard times causing Wallace to lose his place in 1844. He was now successful in gaining a position as a teacher of Surveying in the Collegiate School in Leicester where he had access to a library where there were several reliable books on Natural History. During these times Wallace became familiar with Thomas Malthus' work An Essay on the Principle of Population in which populations are held to naturally increase to the limit of available food Through the animal and vegetable kingdoms Nature has scattered the abroad with the most profuse and liberal hand; but has been comparatively sparing in the room and nourishment necessary to rear them. The germs of existence contained in the earth, if they could freely develop themselves, would fill millions of worlds in the course of a few thousand years. Necessity, that imperious, all-pervading law of nature, restrains them within the prescribed bounds. The race of plants and the race of animals shrink under this great restrictive law; and man cannot by any effort of reason escape from it In 1844 Wallace made the acquaintance of another young man seriously interested in Natural History named Henry Walter Bates (1842-52), who although only nineteen years of age, was a well-recognised proficient in the then fashionable pursuit of beetle-collecting and who had already been able to get some scholarly work in Entomology printed in the learned journal, Zoologist.  Other formative developments in his life in these times included attendance at a demonstration of mesmerism - Wallace found that he could himself reproduce the same effects as the mesmerist demonstated and, more seriously, the death of his brother, William, in February 1845 which was followed by Wallace returning to surveying and his brother, John, joining him in the business. Wallace found his adminstrative responsibilities particularly arduous. After the failure of the business Wallace worked as a surveyor in connection with a proposed railway in the Vale of Neath. He also found time to give lectures on science and engineering at the Mechanics' Institute of Neath and to act as a curator of the Neath Philosophical and Literary Institute's museum.  His interest in Natural History continued and he entered into a regular correspondence with his friend Henry Bates. During thes times Wallace seems to have read, and to have corresponded with Henry Bates about, Charles Darwin's journal on the Voyage of the Beagle, Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology which offered to demonstrate how long-term change, in Geology in this instance, could be effected through the operation of slow, long-term processes, and an anonomously published work Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation, (later known to be by Robert Chambers), which was an early, popular, and notably controversial effort at arguing pursuasively against both Creationism and Lamarckism as full explanations of the existence of the solar system, the earth, and the diversity of species.
The latter two of these works might be thought to have almost prepared Alfred Russel Wallace's mind for an acceptance of evolutionis I have a rather more favourable opinion of the ‘Vestiges’ than you appear to have. I do not consider it a hasty generalization, but rather as an ingenious hypothesis strongly supported by some striking facts and analogies, but which remains to be proven by more facts and the additional light which more research may throw upon the problem. It furnishes a subject for every student of nature to attend to; every fact he observes will make either for or against it, and it thus serves both as an incitement to the collection of facts, and an object to which they can be applied when collected.
Wallace's admiration for the adventures of Charles Darwin during his Beagle voyage and also those related in a book by William H. Edwards entitled A Voyage Up the River Amazon which came into Wallace's hands resulted in his suggesting to his friend Bates that they set themselves up as professional collectors of Natural History specimens to supply the needs of institutions and gentlemen naturalists. The two young men, they were both in their early twenties, sailed for the mouth of the Amazon in April, 1848. In South America Wallace and Bates worked independently of each other with Wallace travelling and collecting samples in the Amazon basin for several years until, early 1852, ill health led him to decide to return home to England.  On his way home he met with a number of serious disappointments including that of finding that a younger brother Herbert, who had been working in the Amazon region, had died of Yellow Fever, and that, because of a misunderstanding, most of the Wallace's specimens collected over his time in the Amazon basin and which had been forwarded, as Wallace had thought, down river for transhipment to Europe were still in dockside storage at the river port of Manaus.  Wallace took steps to arrange passage for himself and his specimens to England - only to meet with disaster! Some twenty-eight days after leaving South American shores the ship, a brig named the Helen, caught fire and sank, and for ten subsequent days Wallace, together with a few distressed companions, were in fear of their lives abroad on Atlantic Seas in a pair of what seemed to be unsafe, and leaking, lifeboats. In the event the survivors were picked up by a passing cargo vessel Further adventures followed in that their rescuing ship, a brig named the Jordeson, also seemed somewhat unreliable and was itself threatened with being wrecked during seriously stormy weather:-
We now had a very tedious voyage, and soon got to be very short of provisions, the crew being doubled by our arrival: in fact, had not two vessels assisted us with provisions at different times, we should actually have starved; and as it was, for a considerable time we had nothing but biscuit and water. We encountered three very heavy gales, which split and carried away some of the strongest sails in the ship, and made her leak so much that the pumps could with difficulty keep her free. On the 1st of October, however, we were safely landed at Deal, eighty days after we left ParĂ¡.  From a letter to the Editor that appeared in the "Proceedings of Natural-History Collectors in Foreign Countries" section of the Zoologist issue of November 1852.
Wallace thus made his landfall after some eighty all-too-eventful days at sea. The sinking of the ship that had been intended to convey his collected specimens to England greatly limited his sources of ready income - but as his specimens had been insured this brought some short term relief. He did write up for publication a number of academic papers and a couple of brief works based on his travels; Palm Trees of the Amazon and Their Uses and Travels on the Amazon. His activities as a collector of Natural History specimens, and his authorship of academic papers and of his two books that were fairly well received brought him a little bit of notice in the then somewhat fashionable Natural History circles of society and, during these times he became introduced to many interested persons including one Charles Darwin.  His work in the Amazon basin having done something to establish his reputation allowed Wallace to secure a grant from the Royal Geographical Society to cover the expense of his passage to the Indonesian Archpelago where he again intended to practice as a collector of Natural History specimens. During my constant attendance at the meetings of the Zoological and Entomological Societies and visits to the insect and bird departments of the British Museum, I had obtained sufficient information to satisfy me that the very finest field for an exploring and collecting naturalist was to be found in the great Malayan Archipelago, of which just sufficient was known to prove its wonderful richness, while no part of it, with the exception of the island of Java, had been well explored as regards its natural history. Sir James Brook had recently become Rajah of Sarawak, while the numerous Dutch settlements in Celebes and the Moluccas offered great facilities for a traveller. So far as known also, the country was generally healthy, and I determined that it would be much better for me to go to such a new country than return to the Amazon, where Bates had already been successfully collecting for five years, and where I knew there was a good bird-collector who had been long at work in the upper part of the river towards the Andes.
New Friends Quotes Tumblr And Sayings For Girls Funny Taglog For Facebook Images Short Pictures
New Friends Quotes Tumblr And Sayings For Girls Funny Taglog For Facebook Images Short Pictures
New Friends Quotes Tumblr And Sayings For Girls Funny Taglog For Facebook Images Short Pictures
New Friends Quotes Tumblr And Sayings For Girls Funny Taglog For Facebook Images Short Pictures
New Friends Quotes Tumblr And Sayings For Girls Funny Taglog For Facebook Images Short Pictures
New Friends Quotes Tumblr And Sayings For Girls Funny Taglog For Facebook Images Short Pictures
New Friends Quotes Tumblr And Sayings For Girls Funny Taglog For Facebook Images Short Pictures
New Friends Quotes Tumblr And Sayings For Girls Funny Taglog For Facebook Images Short Pictures
New Friends Quotes Tumblr And Sayings For Girls Funny Taglog For Facebook Images Short Pictures
New Friends Quotes Tumblr And Sayings For Girls Funny Taglog For Facebook Images Short Pictures
New Friends Quotes Tumblr And Sayings For Girls Funny Taglog For Facebook Images Short Pictures

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